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Herbicide resistance growing in north

Glyphosate resistance is a growing problem in the northern grain growing region, with concerns several more weed species may be on the cusp of becoming resistant.

Michael Widderick, Queensland Department of Agriculture principal weeds research scientist, said the problem had the potential to drastically alter the industry.

"Weed management has to become a high priority... herbicides alone can no longer keep weeds at bay"

A barnyard grass ‘survivor’ of fallow treatment with glyphosate.

The northern minimum tillage farming system (with summer and winter cropping) relies on the use of glyphosate to manage a wide range of weeds during the fallow.

“If we were to lose the use of glyphosate it would fundamentally change the way the grain industry operates in the north,” he said.

“The risk of herbicide resistance being present on Queensland and northern NSW farms is increasing and should be factored in to any weed management strategy.”

Herbicide resistance has been found in Queensland populations of wild oats (Group A resistance), African turnip weed, black bindweed, common sowthistle, Indian hedge mustard and turnip weed (Group B resistance), liverseed grass (Group C resistance) and barnyard grass and flaxleaf fleabane (Group M resistance).

“A small survey of barnyard grass in northern NSW and southern Queensland recently revealed that 50 per cent of the samples taken in summer fallows were herbicide resistant and 90pc of glyphosate ‘survivors’ were resistant,” Dr Widderick said.

“The main concentrations were found on the north-west slopes and plains of NSW and the western Darling Downs.”

There are several reasons why a herbicide spray operation may be less effective than expected, Dr Widderick said.

“Weather conditions, size of the weeds, water quality and blocked nozzles can all make a difference but if a spray seems to have been ineffective across some or all of the paddock it is worth investigating the possibility that those weeds may have herbicide resistance.”

Dr Widderick said growers need to take a long-term view to their weed management strategy, beginning with routine testing for herbicide resistance.

“The quick test, which involves sending live plants to the Plant Science Consulting testing service in Adelaide, has the fastest turn-around time and gives growers the opportunity to control areas with known resistance before they set seed,” he said.

“There are suspect populations of both sowthistle and sweet summer grass currently being tested for glyphosate resistance.”

Dr Widderick said that experience in other cropping systems has shown that herbicide resistance can develop largely unnoticed and then appear to ‘explode’ quite suddenly, rapidly taking hold of cropping land and leading to significant yield losses and additional production costs.

“This is why growers need to take notice of the effectiveness of each herbicide application and to act quickly to remove individual plants that have ‘survived’,” he said.

Dr Widderick said over-reliance on any one mode of action is the primary cause of resistance in weeds. This may be repeated use of a single herbicide or of mechanical controls such as slashing or cultivating. A strategic weed management plan will need to include as wide a variety of methods as possible.

“There are several cultural and agronomic practices that are effective and will potentially prevent herbicide resistance on cropping land,” he said.

“Weed management has to become a high priority throughout the farming system because herbicides alone can no longer keep weeds at bay.

“If there are weeds that have not died after a herbicide spray, investigate why they have survived and act quickly to remove them or prevent them from setting seed.

“There is no doubt that herbicide resistance is now a reality in the northern region but the threat can be contained if a range of weed management strategies are implemented on farms across the region.”

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Never cut the herbicide application rate

Scientific studies have demonstrated that resistance can rapidly evolve in weeds subjected to low doses of herbicide. Some weeds can develop resistance within a few generations. Full rates when mixing herbicides too! When mixing herbicides it is important that each product is still applied at the full label rate to ensure high mortality. Applying different chemicals in one mix can provide an additive advantage. It is important to understand the mode of action of each herbicide on the plant when preparing a herbicide mix. This is just as important for pre-emergent grass weed mixes as it is for post-emergent mixes aimed at broadleaf weed control. ALWAYS READ THE LABEL. Surrounding weed seeds with a combination of pre-emergent herbicides with different modes of action can give a high level of control and help extend the useful life of all the chemicals used. The high level of control must be supported with additional control measures for all survivors. All products with different modes of action must be applied at full label rates for this to be an effective strategy.   Mixing two chemicals with the same mode of action can achieve some additional efficacy, however, the mix should deliver the combined full rate to ensure a lethal dose. The amount of stubble present and crop safety are all important considerations when mixing chemicals. For example, when using a tank mix of Avadex® and trifluralin to control ryegrass in wheat, the rates used will vary depending on the sowing system and level of stubble retention. Be sure to get good advice. Many herbicides on the market are a combination of two or more modes of action within the one product. These products must be applied at the full label rate to be effective. Having dual action does not negate the need to change herbicide products and rotate modes of action. Repeated use of any single strategy will reduce the effectiveness of that strategy over time.  

Spray well – correct nozzles, adjuvants and water rates

Spray application is a technical field and growers need to make sure their equipment and application techniques are spot-on. The GRDC Spray Application GrowNote provides detailed information and about 80 videos to demonstrate key skills. Prevent spray-drift The focus of spraying herbicide needs to be on doing the job right so the weeds receive the correct dose and die, and this includes reducing the air borne fraction to a bare minimum. Bill Gordon’s 10 Tips for Reducing Spray Drift Choose all products in the tank mix carefully. Understand the product mode of action and coverage requirements. Select (and check) the coarsest spray quality that will provide effective control. Expect that surface temperature inversions will form as sunset approaches and will likely persist overnight and even beyond sunrise on many occasions. DO NOT SPRAY. Use weather forecasts to inform your spray decisions. Only start spraying when the sun is about 20 degrees above the horizon and when the wind speed has been above 4–5 km/hr for more than 20–30 minutes, and clearly blowing away from any adjacent sensitive crops or areas. Set the boom height to achieve a double overlap of the spray patterns. Avoid higher spraying speeds. Leave buffers unsprayed if necessary and come back. Continue to monitor conditions, particularly wind speed, at the site during the spray operation High water rates don’t have to slow you down Some growers are concerned that increasing the water rate when applying herbicide will slow down their spray operation and cost them money. However, the biggest financial loss during spraying usually comes from a failed spray job. To keep your spray operation as time efficient as possible when using more effective and reliable application volumes, you can: Use nurse tanks around the farm to reduce the time spent travelling back to a central re-fill point. Use a larger pump, e.g. 2.5 inch, to make re-filling quicker. Pre-mix the batch while the sprayer is operating. Many mixes can be held in the mixing tank for up to 6 hours. However, wettable granules and suspension concentrates will need agitation to keep them in solution. For pre-emergent herbicides in high stubble situations, carrier volume has a large effect on the level of control achieved. Across four trial sites Dr Borger’s research demonstrated that ryegrass control with trifluralin or Sakura® increased from 53% control when the carrier volume was 30 L/ha to 78% control when the carrier volume was increased to 150 L water/ha in high Water quality and mixing order Water quality is often overlooked as a possible contributor to herbicide failure and can lead to confusion over the herbicide resistance status of weeds on a property. Water should be considered as one of the chemicals in any mix, given that water quality varies markedly depending on its source. Getting the mixing order right is essential for effective spray results. Don’t start mixing until the water quality is right Podcast – Mixing herbicides Adjuvants Sometimes adding an adjuvant is beneficial and sometimes it is detrimental; and there is an art to knowing how to best deploy these additives. When weeds are susceptible to the applied herbicides, the effectiveness of adjuvants generally goes un-noticed. Correctly applied adjuvants can reduce the impact of low level herbicide resistance by helping to maximise the amount of herbicide taken up by the plant.

Clean borders – avoid evolving resistance on the fence line

About one-quarter of glyphosate-resistant populations within broadacre cropping situations across Australia come from fencelines and other non-cropping areas of the farm. Along paddock borders, where there is no crop competition, weeds can flourish and, if not controlled, set lots of seed. The traditional approach has been to treat these weeds with glyphosate to keep borders clean but after 20-odd years this option is now failing and paddock borders are becoming a significant source of glyphosate-resistant weed seed. Weed researcher Eric Koetz said the limited options for managing weeds along irrigation infrastructure and other non-crop areas is a problem and is putting additional pressure on knock-down herbicides in irrigated systems. In some situations, cultivation can be used to kill the weeds and provide a firebreak, but on light soils this may pose an erosion risk and mowing or slashing may be safer options. Another possible tactic is to continue using herbicides but to ensure that a clean-up operation is carried out before any survivors can set seed. Some growers are choosing to increase the heat on weeds along the borders by planting the crop right to the fence and then baling the outside lap and spraying with a knockdown herbicide to kill any weeds and provide a firebreak. Another good option in some situations is to maintain a healthy border of vegetation using non-invasive grasses. In Queensland, buffel grass is a good example of a grass that can outcompete other weeds while not invading crop lands. If only herbicides are used on fencelines, resistance is inevitable. Surviving weeds on fencelines have no competition and access to plenty of soil moisture, so they set a lot of seed and resistance can easily flow into neighbouring paddocks. Other resources It’s time for a glyphosate intervention Farm hygiene cottons on – Cleave Rogan, St George What’s new in management of herbicide resistant weeds on fencelines? Keeping the farm clean – Graham Clapham, Norwin Don’t jeopardise glyphosate for clean fencelines Keeping fencelines clean Resistance risk to knock-down herbicides on irrigated cotton farms

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