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Winter pulses can compete, even without herbicide

Chickpeas and faba beans now have a permanent place in most northern region farming rotations and, while they offer some diversity in herbicide options, they have been considered comparatively less competitive against weeds than other crops. Back when growers had a number of effective herbicide options available, the lower competitiveness of these pulse crops was less problematic because the herbicides were keeping weed numbers low. In the light of increasing herbicide resistance in many weeds, strong crop competition is required to do more of the ‘heavy lifting’ within an integrated weed management program. Dr Michael Widderick, Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries principal research scientist, is leading the work on crop competition within the multi-facetted GRDC-funded ‘Innovative crop weed solutions for northern region cropping systems’ (US00084) project led by Dr Michael Walsh, University of Sydney. The first round of southern Queensland data was collected for faba bean (PBA Warda) and chickpea (PBA HatTrick) trials harvested in late October 2017, at the Hermitage site near Warwick. Sowthistle is a major winter weed in pulse crops and growers are finding it is increasingly able to escape herbicide control, robbing the crop of valuable resources while setting huge numbers of seeds that increase weed pressure in the following season. There are known populations of sowthistle with resistance to glyphosate and chlorsulfuron in the northern grains region (and 2,4-D resistance confirmed in SA), making non-herbicide control tactics all the more important in driving down numbers of this moisture-sucking weed. Sowthistle is a major winter weed in pulse crops and growers are finding it is increasingly able to escape herbicide control, robbing the crop of valuable resources while setting huge numbers of seeds that increase weed pressure in the following season. “We are looking at optimal row spacing and crop density to combat common sowthistle, and also determining if more competitive crops are also higher yielding,” says Dr Widderick. “The trials are being replicated at sites near Warwick, Narrabri and Wagga Wagga and will run for five years.” The faba bean and chickpea crops were trialled at narrow and wider row spacing, and low, medium and high crop densities in both weedy (sown sowthistle) and weed-free plots. The sowthistle seed sown in the trials all came from the same, non-resistant population and no herbicide was applied to any of the plots. Dr Widderick says sowthistle is definitely susceptible to crop competition, with even the least competitive faba bean and chickpea crops cutting weed biomass and seed production by at least 50 per cent compared to plots where the weed was allowed to grow free of any crop competition. Sowthistle seed production was greatest for both crops at wide row spacing (50 cm) and low (20 plants/m2) crop density. Seed production was progressively reduced as crop competition increased. “In chickpea we found that reducing row spacing from 50 cm to 25 cm further reduced weed biomass and seed production by about 50 per cent at a crop density of 40 plants/m2,” he says. “In this trial, row spacing had no effect on crop yield but increasing plant density did generate a significant and progressive increase in yield for both chickpea and faba bean in weedy plots.” When sowthistle is present, increasing crop density from 20 plants/m2to 70 plants/m2in faba beans, or to 80 plants/m2in chickpea, generated around 0.5 t/ha yield increase. Averaged across all treatments for both crops, controlling sowthistle with crop competition alone (no herbicide applied) was worth approximately 0.25 t/ha in crop yield. This research has measured the effect of increasing the competitiveness of chickpeas and faba bean without the use of any herbicide. On farms, growers usually have some herbicides at their disposal and other research shows that combining effective herbicides with strong crop competition is the best way to control herbicide resistant weeds. In chickpea, reducing row spacing from 50 cm to 25 cm cuts sowthistle biomass and seed production by about 50 per cent at a crop density of 40 plants/m2.
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Weed control is a package deal in SA Mid North

Agronomist Craig Davis has been assisting growers in the Mid North and Yorke Peninsula of South Australia to navigate their way around resistance to key herbicides such as trifluralin, Group A and Group B herbicides for 10 years or more. “Some of this chemistry was cheap and dealing with the loss of these modes of action has been difficult,” says Craig. “The key to farming without these herbicides has centred around using crop rotations to control the weed seed bank.” Mid North SA agronomist Craig Davis says harvest weed seed control has been widely accepted as a necessary tool to manage the seed bank in the Mid North and Yorke Peninsula. Narrow windrow burning (NWB) is commonly practiced in the region, and there has been considerable interest in chaff management systems with a few chaff decks operating and some growers now trialling chaff lining. Annual ryegrass control has been and remains a significant cost to growers in these regions. Brome grass and wild oats are becoming increasingly important weeds that were previously suppressed by trifluralin, and stubble retention on many farms has also favoured some weeds, like brome grass. Craig says these weeds are demonstrating increasing resistance to Group A (fop and dim) and Group B (SU and imi) herbicides, and some of the alternative pre-emergence herbicides are relatively ineffective, or variable in their control. For some growers, oaten hay production for export has been a useful enterprise to reign in resistant annual ryegrass numbers. Although a very effective weed control option, it is not for everyone. Brome grass and wild oats are not as well controlled through oaten hay production because a significant amount of seed is shed before the crop is cut. For many hard-to-kill weeds, a breakthrough came with the introduction of new imi-tolerant lentil varieties in the early 2000s, which are now built into the rotation on most farms in the region. “Imi-tolerant lentils have been very useful in managing weeds, and the high grain prices and suitability to the rotation have made them the legume of choice for growers,” says Craig. “In practice though, field peas are the most effective legume option for grass weed control.” Field peas can be sown later without suffering a yield penalty, are a more competitive crop and are a good option for effective crop-topping due to their early maturity. The downside of field peas is the likely build up of snail numbers. Although lentils have been the pulse of choice for several years, field peas are the most effective legume option for grass weed control in the region because they can be sown later without suffering a yield penalty, are a more competitive than lentils and are a good option for effective crop-topping due to their early maturity. Break crops currently make up around 50 per cent of the cropped area, due mainly to the recent high price for lentils. Craig expects this area of break crop to drop in response to the lower lentil price, however, growers generally recognise the benefits of maintaining diversity in their cropping program. “Canola is more competitive than lentils and enables the use of triazine as an alternative chemistry for annual ryegrass control,” he says. “Hybrid canola is particularly competitive against weeds and can suppress seed set even when the herbicide package is not strong.” A large portion of the canola crop is windrowed and there is a long history of spraying under the cutter bar to reduce seed set in lodged and late germinating ryegrass. Many growers have added narrow windrow burning (NWB) to their weed management program to kill any viable weed seed left at the end of the canola crop. A cheaper option is to spray over the top to desiccate the crop, then direct harvest with a narrow windrow burning chute and burn the narrow windrows the following autumn, however Craig has witnessed significant wind damage to standing crops and recommends growers continue to swath and spray under the cutterbar, unless they can guarantee timely harvest. The higher harvest height of direct headed canola also means a significant amount of weed seeds are not captured in the header front. Canola grown on cereal stubble has reached a yield plateau, and along with the increasing incidence of clethodim resistance, Craig expects growers to increase their use of double-breaks in their rotations. The traditional double break in the area was pasture followed by canola, which provides annual grass weed control, a cereal disease break and uses the residual soil nutrients. “There is now an increase in the use of a double break of oaten hay or grain legume followed by canola,” he says. “This allows the canola to thrive in paddocks with lower weed burdens, lowers stubble residue levels and increases soil nutrient levels, particularly nitrogen.” “Adding feed barley to the rotation offers growers the opportunity to implement a triple-break to control brome grass, wild oats and ryegrass, making use of the permit that allows spray-topping of feed barley to reduce weed seed set prior to harvest,” he says. Craig works with his clients to optimise crop competition in tandem with a good pre-emergent herbicide package. He says that effective and relatively cheap pre-emergent herbicides have previously masked the true value of crop competition. “Stubble retention makes the adoption of narrow rows more difficult but many growers have moved from 30 cm to 22 cm row spacing using tined planters,” says Craig. “More commonly, growers are using higher planting rates to achieve stronger crop competition. The other critical aspect is to seed all crops at the optimal time of sowing and to not plant everything early. Early sowing should only be considered for paddocks with low weed numbers.” Mixing trifluralin with another pre-emergent herbicide is an effective tool provided both herbicides in the mix have some efficacy, say over 80 per cent efficacy as a stand-alone herbicide. With high levels of trifluralin resistance now widespread, the use of other effective MOAs in combination is increasing. With heavy stubble loads on the soil surface making it difficult to achieve high levels of control using pre-emergent herbicides, Craig says it is essential that growers diversify and implement other weed control tactics to remove any survivors and stop seed set. Harvest weed seed control has been widely accepted as a necessary tool to manage the seed bank. Narrow windrow burning (NWB) is commonly practiced in the region, mostly in canola and lentil crops because the windrows tend to stay in place and support a hot fire that achieves a high level of weed seed kill. “There has been considerable interest in chaff management systems in the district and several clients have used chaff carts in the past,” he says. “Now there are a few chaff decks operating and some growers are trialling chaff lining. There has been success with chaff lining pulses one year and placing the narrow windrows of the following canola crop on top of the pulse chaff line.” “Growers using chaff decks are seeing improvements in summer spraying efficacy as a result of less dust coming off the tramlines,” says Craig. “The downsides are the increased difficulty in establishing crops in the tramlines and, although the weed seed mortality is high, there are still high numbers of weeds germinating on the wheeltracks.” Getting started with chaff lining Farming 4000 ha of light sandy to heavy clay soil in the medium rainfall district of Halbury and Salter Springs SA, Kevin Simon trialled chaff lining for the first time in the 2017 harvest. Kevin planted early maturing PBA Wharton field peas to help bring annual ryegrass numbers back under control. The field peas yielded around 3–4 t/ha and, being early maturing, offered an opportunity to harvest early and catch the ryegrass before it lodged or set seed. Farming in the medium rainfall district of Halbury and Salter Springs SA, Kevin Simon trialled chaff lining for the first time in the 2017 harvest. He planted early maturing PBA Wharton field peas to help bring annual ryegrass numbers back under control. Kevin plans to plant TT canola into this paddock in 2018 using a disc seeder to minimise disturbance of the chaff line. “Harvesting low and early are important to stop ryegrass seed set but it also comes with difficulties because the ryegrass is still green and can bind up the rotors in the header,” he says. Kevin plans to plant TT canola into this paddock in 2018 using a disc seeder to minimise disturbance of the chaff line. With limited in-crop herbicide options available, Kevin relies on late season cultural control. “We spray over the top of the canola with a self-propelled sprayer then direct harvest to control ryegrass using the chaff lining chute,” he says. “Chaff lining is also a good way to collect volunteer crop seed from the previous season. The plan is to place the canola narrow windrows on top of the previous year’s pea chaff line, and burn the narrow windrows to control weed seeds collected during the harvest process.” Last summer was very dry and so there was very limited germination of volunteers and weed seeds from the field pea chaff lines. In wetter years, Kevin expects that volunteers would be the most dominant plant type within the chaff line, with ryegrass being the next most prevalent species present. If necessary, Kevin is prepared to apply a range of chemical and cultural control measures to target the weeds growing in the chaff lines. Lime applied on other paddocks has also helped reduce the ryegrass population. Related posts Pulses to attack weeds on many fronts Setting up harvesters to capture weed seeds in the chaff stream Mic Fels case study – Stacked rotation and Chaff lining Warwick and Di Holding case study – From narrow windrow burning to chaff decks How chaff lining works
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Value in sponsoring herbicide stewardship program

FMC Agricultural Solutions, now the world’s fifth largest crop protection chemical company, has recently signed up as a silver sponsor of the WeedSmart herbicide stewardship program. Dugald North, FMC development manager (crops) said the company’s acquisition of part of the DuPont Crop Protection division late last year has brought to the company a world-class discovery and development team and facilities, a pipeline of 15 synthetic active ingredients currently in development, including insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, and an extensive library of 1.8 million synthetic compounds. Dugald North, FMC Agricultural Solutions development manager (crops) said the company has signed up as a silver sponsor of the WeedSmart herbicide stewardship program to support the ‘WeedSmart Big 6’ strategy for sustainable herbicide use. “FMC is keenly aware of the impact herbicide resistance has on farming businesses and is fully supportive of the ‘WeedSmart Big 6’ strategy for sustainable herbicide use,” said Mr North. “We see WeedSmart as an important component of promoting herbicide use that prolongs the efficacy of our new herbicide molecules when they are released on the market.” “The WeedSmart Big 6 combines best practice herbicide use with cultural strategies to keep weed numbers low, maintaining an environment where herbicides can perform most effectively,” he said. “Herbicide resistance is a central concern for our business and FMC is committed to prolonging the effective life of new chemistries, even if this means foregoing sales in the short term.” Prior to the release of their new herbicide molecules, FMC has contracted the Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative (AHRI) to conduct multi-generational resistance testing, which Mr North said will provide a scientific basis for the formulation of an effective stewardship program for individual products. In welcoming FMC Agricultural Solutions as a silver sponsor, Lisa Mayer, AHRI centre manager and WeedSmart project leader said the promotion of sustainable herbicide use and cultural practices that drive down weed seed banks is key to securing the weed control productivity gains made by the current generation of Australian farmers. “WeedSmart is an industry-led initiative that brings together knowledge and experience from Australian research partners, commercial entities, Government, advisers and growers to ensure Australian farmers have access to leading-edge weed management technologies and practices,” she said. “With the financial and in-kind support from sponsors secured for a further three years, WeedSmart is geared up to continue providing rural industries with insights into effective integrated weed control programs.” Ms Mayer said gaining the support of FMC Agricultural Solutions was testament to the perceived effectiveness of the WeedSmart program in promoting practical tactics growers could implement to maintain their profitability. “WeedSmart has become an effective conduit of information between growers within and between regions, and between growers, advisors and researchers,” she said. “We have used as many platforms as possible to raise awareness, not only of the extent of herbicide resistance but also to highlight successful management strategies that growers can implement immediately.” “There have been many instances where growers have returned from a WeedSmart Week event or field day, or read about another grower’s success and immediately adopted practices such as harvest weed seed control, patch management, optical spray technologies or greater crop competition.” The ‘Big 6’ WeedSmart tactics known to drive down weed numbers and drastically reduce the impact of herbicide resistance on Australian farms are: 1. Rotate crops and pastures, 2. Mix and rotate herbicide modes of action, 3. Increase crop competition, 4. Use the double-knock, 5. Stop weed seed set and 6. Implement harvest weed seed control. FMC have joined forces with existing platinum sponsor GRDC, gold sponsors CRDC, Nufarm, Sinochem, Syngenta, Monsanto and Bayer, silver sponsors Pioneer Seeds, BASF and Dow AgroSciences and bronze sponsors Queensland Government, ICAN, Delta Agribusiness, The University of Adelaide, CropLife, Rural Directions and AGRIvision to spread the WeedSmart Big 6 message amongst growers and advisors to tackle herbicide resistance in Australia.  
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3-year strategy for sustainable brome grass management

Brome grass is showing off its ability to dodge and weave to evade control, making it the most costly weed in the Mallee regions of South Australia and Victoria, and increasingly problematic in other cropping areas of southern Australia. According to University of Adelaide weed ecology researcher Dr Sam Kleemann, the increased incidence of brome grass is associated with management practices that have inadvertently selected biotypes with greater seed dormancy. According to University of Adelaide weed ecology researcher Dr Sam Kleemann, the increased incidence of brome grass is associated with management practices that have inadvertently selected biotypes with greater seed dormancy. “We compared the dormancy behaviour of brome grass seed collected from crop paddocks and fencelines and found that the seed from the cropped paddocks had a greater dormancy, which allowed these biotypes to thrive in no-till, cereal intense farming systems,” said Dr Kleemann. “The adoption of earlier sowing and dry sowing has also favoured this species. Brome grass has the potential to reduce wheat yields by up to 50 per cent if numbers get out of hand.” This process of selection for biotypes that remain dormant longer and avoid pre-seeding controls such as a double-knock or cultivation, is slower but similar in effect to the evolution of herbicide resistance. Herbicide resistance levels in brome grass are currently low, however there are records in Australia of brome grass with resistance to Group A, B, C and M herbicides. “The autumn break has traditionally initiated brome grass germinations, and this is when germination is most likely on fencelines and roadsides,” he said. “The biotypes that have persisted in cropping areas are more likely to germinate in late autumn and through winter, and some even require a period of chilling to 5 °C to break the dormancy period.” Having evaded early control these late-germinating weeds go on to produce a large amount of seed and often lodged or shed their seed by crop harvest time, so they can also largely escape harvest weed seed control measures. The seed can remain viable for up to three years if it remains on the soil surface. Although brome grass has proven to be successful in the no-till farming environment, dedicated research efforts have shown that brome numbers can be driven down quite rapidly using a double-break from cereals, more effective pre-emergent herbicide packages and sowing on-the-row rather than inter-row. Trials on non-wetting sands in the Mallee have shown that sowing on the same row as the previous year improves crop establishment and the ability of the crop to compete with brome seed that is generally more abundant on the row than between the rows. The planting operation can also help break the seed dormancy by burying some of the seed, putting the seedlings in contact with the full rate of pre-emergence herbicide. “At high brome grass densities, trifluralin is generally the least effective pre-emergent option,” said Dr Kleemann. “Better results can be expected from the more expensive Sakura + Avadex package, which resulted in 72 per cent less brome panicles than trifluralin alone in trials. In this 2015 trial the trifluralin treatment resulted in 60 brome grass panicles per metre square compared to just 16 in the Sakura + Avadex treatment.” “Growers will need to weigh up the extra cost in herbicide compared to the likely seedbank benefits and the variability in pre-emergence herbicide performance between seasons. This is why a diverse approach to weed management is essential.” “In years where crop competition is patchy, brome grass can exploit the opportunity and replenish the seed bank, putting increased pressure on pre-emergent herbicides the following season.” 3-year brome grass reduction rotation Growers who are noticing increased brome grass numbers can use a three-year rotational strategy known to effectively drive down the brome grass seed bank. Year 1 – a pulse crop to enable the use of effective pre-emergent herbicides and in-crop grass selective herbicides, followed with crop-topping to reduce brome seed set where there is no yield penalty expected. Year 2 – canola or hay. Canola offers a similar suite of tactics to the Year 1 pulse crop, targeting brome grass germinations throughout the cropping season. Hay is a very effective option, reducing seed set by as much as 90 per cent, particularly if the hay is cut at the commencement of brome grass flowering. Regrowth after cutting hay must be controlled with grazing or knockdown herbicides, particularly in wet seasons. Year 3 – Clearfield wheat allows the use of imidazolinone herbicides, the most effective chemistry available for brome grass control. Using this technology in a low weed situation (due to seed bank reduction in the previous two years) there is less pressure applied to this herbicide, which is known to be prone to rapid evolution of herbicide resistance in high weed density scenarios. Growers who are noticing increased brome grass numbers can use a three-year rotational strategy known to effectively drive down the brome grass seed bank, starting with a pulse crop that is suited to crop-topping without yield penalty. The Brome RIM tool is available for growers and advisors to test the likely effect of different management scenarios on brome grass numbers.
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Resistance testing informs herbicide use plans

Matt and James Toscan have been growing cotton for seven years at Darlington Point in the Murrumbidgee. Speaking to their CottonInfo Regional Extension Officer, Matt Toscan outlined how they are managing the threat of resistant weeds. The primary weeds encountered on their farm are barnyard grass, blackberry nightshade, sowthistle, fleabane, annual ryegrass and thistles. Matt Toscan. Matt and James have tested barnyard grass, sowthistle and ryegrass for resistance over recent years. The barnyard grass and sowthistle were found to be susceptible to glyphosate (Group M), while the ryegrass was found to be resistant to by glyphosate and Group A herbicides. To counter the threat of further incursion and resistance, Matt and James have an integrated weed management strategy (IWM) that is developed over the full course of the year, in close consultation with a crop consultant. The summer crop program is decided in July–August, and the winter crop program in March–April. “We recognise that weed resistance is a threat to the long-term cropping viability of intensive irrigation areas, which is why an integrated weed management approach is so important to us,” said Matt. “There are no new herbicides, so we need to preserve our chemical options by making use of non-chemical control tactics.” “Weed control in cotton will never be as easy as it is right now, while we are a new area and can rely on glyphosate for summer weed control. Being so easy and effective is both a strength and a weakness in the current weed control system. We need to think long term and use multiple tactics.” The Toscan’s take a whole farm approach to management of weeds, with particular attention paid to non-cropped areas, such as the sides of fields, channels, roadways, drains and bankless channels. Their IWM strategy involves a range of control measures, including pre- and at-plant residuals, pre-emergent knock downs, post-emergent herbicide applications and chipping, particularly for ryegrass and milk thistle. The pre-emergents are used sparingly, due to the possible cold conditions at the start of the crop. Not all control measures have worked, so the strategy has evolved over time. “We’ve learnt that spraying in less than ideal conditions can result in spray application failures – like spraying barnyard grass when it is too hot. Timing of applications is critical: there can be advantages re timing with aerial application,” James said. Growers Matt and James Toscan Cropping area Total hectares: 4200 ha. Cotton: 1100 ha irrigated Soil type Majority Grey/brown self-mulching clay with some Transitional Red brown earth Rotations Two-year rotation: cotton (summer); durum wheat (winter); fallow (summer and winter); cotton (summer) Source: CottonInfo Weed Control case studies Further information: CottonInfo weed management page
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Using IWM to keep one step ahead of resistance

Ben Thomas has been growing cotton for 15 years across three properties, two irrigated and one broadacre, at Warren in the Macquarie Valley. Speaking to his CottonInfo Regional Extension Officer, Ben Thomas outlined how he is managing the threat of resistant weeds. The most common weeds found on Ben’s properties are fleabane, windmill grass, barnyard grass, sow thistle, turnip weed and ryegrass. Fleabane and windmill grass are the biggest challenges at present, with Ben expecting ryegrass, sow thistle, barnyard grass and feathertop Rhodes grass to emerge as issues in the future. Ben Thomas The threat of resistance is a core reason why Ben has an integrated management plan in place, developed with consultant Andrew Cooper of Landmark. Ben’s approach is to control weeds in his irrigated cotton through a range of tactics including pre-emergent knock downs, post-emergent herbicide applications, layby residuals and cultivations. Chipping is used if required. The pre-emergents and laybys are used sparingly, as high disease levels and cold temperatures can lead to a slow start for the cotton, and he does not want to put any additional stress on the plant. He calculates that the cost for controlling weeds ranges from $50 to $80 per hectare across his fallow, broadacre and irrigation country. Through CottonInfo, Ben has tested for resistance in fleabane, ryegrass and other weeds. Grower Ben Thomas Cropping area Total hectares: 6000 ha. Cotton: 1500 ha irrigated Soil type Cracking clay Rotations Two-year rotation: cotton (summer); winter cereal or legume (winter); long fallow (sum- mer and winter); cotton (summer) Source: CottonInfo Weed Control case studies Further information: CottonInfo weed management page
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Adjuvants’ role in combatting herbicide resistance  

Andrew Somervaille, Jubilee Consulting has been evaluating the performance of herbicides for more than three decades and says the role of adjuvants is often either over-rated or under-estimated. This may seem a contradiction, but the fact is that sometimes adding an adjuvant is beneficial and sometimes it is detrimental; and there is an art to knowing how to best deploy these additives. When weeds are susceptible to the applied herbicides, the effectiveness of adjuvants generally goes un-noticed. However, correctly applied adjuvants can reduce the impact of low level herbicide resistance by helping to maximise the amount of herbicide taken up by the plant.<! Andrew Somervaille, research agronomist with Jubilee Consulting suggests growers and advisors should not overlook or over-rate the use of adjuvants. “In the best case scenario, the correct use of an adjuvant can optimise performance of a single herbicide, or a herbicide mix,” he says. “This results in the most efficient control of the target weeds, minimises seed set and reduces weed numbers into the future. All research points to low weed numbers as the only sustainable way to manage herbicide resistance.” “In the worst case scenario, the incorrect use of an adjuvant can reduce herbicide performance, may compromise the physical compatibility of mixtures and can alter the function of tank mix components,” says Andrew. “This may result in a sub-lethal dose of herbicide being applied, which is known to amplify herbicide resistance if there are low levels of resistance present in the weed population.” “Once populations are highly resistant then the impact of adjuvants is reduced,” says Andrew. “This highlights the importance of being very deliberate and calculated when making recommendations or decisions about adjuvants.” In one experiment Andrew conducted with two formulations of glyphosate, he measured the negative effect of the adjuvant when in the presence of 2,4-D to control awnless barnyard grass. “We know there is antagonism between 2,4-D and glyphosate in a tank mix in some situations that results in a reduction in the level of control expected from glyphosate alone,” he says. “What we observed in this experiment was that one glyphosate+surfactant formulation mixed with 2,4-D achieved just over 80% control while a second glyphosate+surfactant formulation mixed with 2,4-D achieved 94% control.” Andrew says that although some herbicide products are manufactured with an adjuvant included as part of the formulation, there may still be a benefit gained from adding another type of adjuvant prior to application, depending on the other products in the mix, the water quality or the target weed. In another experiment, Andrew investigated the effect of different adjuvants (LI 700 and Liase) on the efficacy of a RoundUp Power Max (glyphosate) and Amicide (2,4-D) mix. The results clearly showed that while Liase improved the performance of the mix, LI 700 reduced performance to less than 80% control of barnyard grass. Grower experience, research trials and computer modelling all point toward high levels of herbicide performance, coupled with the removal of survivor plants, to reliably and sustainably extend the useful lifespan of herbicides by removing potential carriers of resistance traits. “Even small incremental losses in control at the ‘top end’ can have a large effect on the total seed-bank load,” says Andrew. “While 95% control might still be considered a good result from a herbicide application that could have potentially achieved 98% control, this three per cent loss in efficiency could be the start of a substantial increase in weed numbers and allow herbicide resistance to gain a foothold.” Keeping weed numbers low allows the targeted use of more expensive products (e.g. through an optical sprayer), makes manual control methods economical, and even allows the use of less efficient products to maintain or slightly reduce numbers while adding diversity to the program (provided there is no cross-resistance). What adjuvants do An adjuvant may modify the physical, chemical and biological activity of the herbicide on the target. For example, an adjuvant may be added to improve the physical properties of the spray such as its spray quality, or to allow products to dissolve or mix in water. Adjuvants may also alter the chemical properties of the formulation to counter poor water quality or activate certain components in the herbicide, and from a biological perspective an adjuvant may be used to influence uptake through the plant cuticle and even movement across cell membranes. Very small amounts of surfactants are required to achieve adequate ‘wetting’ of the plant surfaces and adding more surfactant will not necessarily increase the performance of foliar applied herbicides. However, some adjuvants (including surfactants) are added specifically to activate the active ingredients and so are an essential component of the formulation or mixture. Adjuvants can play an incremental role in improved herbicide performance and assist with keeping weed numbers low and reducing the risk of sub-lethal resistance traits. However, their use does not over-ride the need for correct chemical use and application under the right conditions. The same adjuvant may even perform different functions when included in different mixes or added to different formulations. There are also specific responses in certain weeds to certain surfactants, some giving superior results and other inferior. It is not possible to give rule-of-thumb recommendations – each scenario needs to be examined carefully, taking into account the target weed species, the condition of the weeds, the water quality and the specific herbicide formulations. They are not always beneficial and can result in sub-lethal doses being applied if they are not used correctly. Combinations of surfactants can modify the functions of the individual components and it cannot be assumed that the effects are additive to herbicide performance. Also, be aware that the characteristics of the leaf cuticle are not the primary limiting factor associated with the uptake of foliar applied herbicides. Plant stress is usually the main limiting factor and this may only be partly overcome through the use of an adjuvant. Clearly, it is not a simple matter of making recommendations or decisions to include an adjuvant. Growers and their advisors need to have an appreciation of the chemistry behind the adjuvant’s use and the way that it may impact on the uptake of the herbicide into the target weed. Useful resources Adjuvants – Oils, surfactants and other additives for farm chemicals
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Weed control program has expanded crop choices

Darren and Leanne Eather have been growing cotton east of Narrabri for some 20 years. Speaking to their CottonInfo Regional Extension Officer, Darren Eather outlined how they are managing the threat of resistant weeds. Darren encounters a range of weeds each season, particularly fleabane, windmill grass, liverseed, barnyard grass, turnip, milk thistle and volunteer cotton. Darren Eather Darren’s approach to weed management varies between his irrigated and dryland cotton, and is tailored field by field and crop by crop. In his dryland crop, he strategically uses rotations to control weeds, along with different chemical modes of action. He applies a pre-plant residual herbicide, followed by an at-plant residual and glyphosate as a pre-emergent knock down. “For grass control, Group D chemicals were our preferred option in order to rotate chemistries. However, we’ve found that windmill grass in particular is not consistently controlled and we get some escapees, which is why we’ve moved towards Group As as an alternative. We’re finding it is providing good control,” Darren said. In his irrigated country, he combines cultivations with two or three applications of post-emergent glyphosate. He aims to meet with his consultant each year following picking to discuss his approach. Darren tends not to apply a layby residual, due to the long-lasting effects and subsequent reduction of options. He believes weed control in non-crop areas of his farm is very important, and actively manages this. “We purchased a farm around a decade ago where we had a very serious issue with black oat and black bindweed,” Darren said. “As a result, we were unable to grow chickpeas on that farm. Now, 10 years later, with a good strategy of weed control and careful crop selection we have controlled the weeds in our system to the stage where we can now grow chickpeas.” Growers Darren and Leanne Eather Cropping area Total hectares: 3,000 ha. Cotton: 400 ha irrigated and 300 ha dryland Soil type Vary from deep black soils to river loams and some hard setting soils Rotations Two-year rotation: Irrigated – cotton (summer); wheat (winter); long fallow (summer and winter); cotton (summer) Dryland – Cotton (summer); chickpeas, canola, wheat (winter); long fallow (summer and winter); cotton (summer) Source: CottonInfo Weed Control case studies Further information: CottonInfo weed management page
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Efficient herbicide use pays off

He is faced with a series of weeds each season, including barnyard grass, fleabane, milk thistle, red pig weed, peachvine, feathertop Rhodes grass, bathurst burr, black oats, phalaris and turnip weed. Resistance has been confirmed in barnyard grass (resistant to Group M herbicides – glyphosate) and black oats (resistant to Group A). Tristram Herstlet, Reardon Farms and Michael Brosnan B&W Rural Tristram expects to have additional problems with resistance in the future, particularly with feathertop Rhodes grass and glyphosate. To manage the existing and potential future resistance threats, Tristram has implemented an integrated approach to weed management, in collaboration with consultant Michael Brosnan of B&W Rural at Mungindi. “We regularly discuss our weeds management program with our agronomist. By the time we plant cotton, we have a program in place and know what we want to do,” Tristram said. “Our strategy is threefold: to minimise future resistance, prolong the use life of each herbicide, and avoid the problem of weed shifts. “We do this by having different tactics, such as rotating our chemical groups, cultivation, crop rotation and farm hygiene. We are well aware of the dire consequences of having multiple grass and broadleaf weeds resistant to glyphosate – and we are currently managing two cases of resistance, in barnyard grass and black oats,” Tristram said. Tristram takes a holistic approach to integrated weed management. “We use control methods at a whole farm level, at a management unit level, down to an individual field basis. And we apply as many options as possible to try and control the weeds that are resistant, and prevent further resistance developing,” Tristram said. “We use a Group L treatment instead of glyphosate (Group M) to give the field a break. More recently, we are using a Group K as a post-plant, pre-emergent in cotton. We intend to follow this with cultivation. We haven’t felt that we’ve needed a layby (a residual herbicide used to control weeds in-crop) as the other control methods are currently working. “We also have a range of other tactics. All of our contractors are required to have clean gear when they come on farm. We practice ‘Come Clean Go Clean’ primarily for disease protection, but an added benefit is weed management. “We also use chippers, predominately in non-crop areas, but also in-crop if necessary, such as if fleabane has become an issue. We try to keep everything spotless, as the fewer the weeds, the fewer the seeds for next year.” Tristram believes the future of weed management lies in robotics and microwave technology. “On our dryland areas we use a camera spray system, which we purchased in 2016. The driver behind the purchase was the ability to spray the dryland fallow area when cotton is in, and the ability to put on higher rates of chemical to kill fleabane without using a hormone,” Tristram said. “The system was a serious investment – a total of $640,000, including a tractor, sprayer and boom – but we’re spraying at the moment and it costs only $5 per hectare with this new system, versus $11.60 per hectare with a full boom. “Based on this, we’re saving around $2,000 per day in chemical with the new system. Most importantly, we’re really happy with the results: the cameras work on the chlorophyll in the plants, and the results are fantastic: we’re getting a good weed kill,” he said. Source: CottonInfo Weed Control case studies Further information: CottonInfo weed management page
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Getting weeds early is key

Tom and Charm Arnott have been growing cotton on ‘Fairfield’ at Boggabilla for 24 years. Speaking to their CottonInfo Regional Extension Officer, Tom Arnott outlined how they are managing the threat of resistant weeds. They encounter a wide range of weeds in their farming operations, including peachvine, barnyard grass, chinese lantern, feathertop Rhodes grass, fleabane, sesbania, climbing bellvine, pigweed, milkthistle, turnip and native vetch. Tom finds climbing bellvine a particular challenge in cotton, because once it is in the crop it is difficult to control, wrapping around the cotton and causing issues at harvest. Tony Taylor, Taylor Ag Consultancy and Tom Arnott “Fairfield” Boggabilla Tom is working with consultant Tony Taylor to implement an integrated weeds management strategy. “Resistance in weeds is already impacting on our business. We have seen how quick it can get away and it can be hard to get back. There’s also a cost associated with trying to get back,” Tom said. “As a result, Tony and I are mapping out a strategy to combat resistance. It’s our first year, so it’s very much a work in progress. To date, I have relied on an over the top glyphosate application and a light cultivation for weed control. We’ve learnt that spraying when the plants are too big doesn’t work – you have to get in when they’re small. “We are now implementing a residual program, which will involve using selective pre-emergents at planting to target hard-to-kill weeds on a field-by-field basis. “We will then use a mix of glyphosate in a double- knock approach, and conduct a more aggressive cultivation with discs and knives to cultivate closer to the plant line. “We’ll also apply a broadleaf ‘layby’ (a residual herbicide used to control weeds in-crop) to all fields to control late weeds coming through. “We also chip weeds: particularly in the school holidays, with the whole family doing their bit. I always have a hoe in the ute!” Tom found the recent CRDC, CottonInfo and ICAN weed management workshops useful in learning strategies to control glyphosate-resistant weeds. “There was plenty of information, and a lot of experience among the growers in the group. It was good to kick around ideas and talk to the agronomists,” Tom said. Growers Tom & Charm Arnott Cropping area Total hectares: 1400 ha. Cotton: 1400 ha irrigated Soil type Black clay Vertosol Rotations Two-year rotation: cotton (summer); double crop winter cereal or chickpeas (winter); long fallow (summer and winter); cotton (summer). Source: CottonInfo Weed Control case studies Further information: CottonInfo weed management page
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Diverse approach to feathertop Rhodes grass control

As an early adopter of zero tillage and controlled traffic farming in Central Queensland, Brendan Swaffer is fully convinced of the benefits, and is well aware of the potential impact of weeds like feathertop Rhodes grass. Since taking over the family farm near Clermont in 2007, Brendan and his wife Jody have been building a robust cropping program with wheat and chickpea in winter and, if soil moisture permits, dryland cotton and sorghum in summer across their 4000 ha of cultivation. Brendan and Jody Swaffer, Clermont have reintroduced tillage to their zero till controlled traffic farming system to manage weedy patches, primarily feathertop Rhodes grass. Dryland cotton has also been a useful addition to the rotation and provides another opportunity to manage FTR. “In the summer fallow our main weeds are summer grass, Johnson grass and fleabane but we are most concerned with the small patches of feathertop Rhodes grass that are appearing,” says Brendan. “We are using a mechanical and chemical double knock to manage these patches of FTR and it has been very effective for us in preventing its spread.” Early in summer Brendon targets any patches of persistent weeds – mostly feathertop Rhodes that has survived under the winter crop. Starting with cultivation of the affected areas, Brendan then follows up a few days later with an application of metolachlor (Group K) to provide short-term residual control of any new germinations that are triggered by the cultivation. “We might spend two days ploughing but only cultivate 150 ha in total,” he says. “For the rest of the year we carry a hoe in every vehicle and stop to chip out small areas of weeds when we see them. We have been enjoying the enormous benefits of zero till and controlled traffic since the 1990s – there is no going back to full cultivation, but it is a useful management tool to target weedy patches before they get out of hand.” Preventing seed set for a couple of consecutive seasons is known to rapidly rundown FTR seedbank as the seed on the surface or even slightly buried only persists for 12 to 18 months. Adding dryland cotton to their rotation has also helped minimise the spread of FTR. The Swaffers produced cotton in four of the five summers from 2010–11 to 2014–15, which enabled the application of Roundup Ready Plantshield to keep pressure on FTR and reduce seed set. Brendan has built in several non-glyphosate weed control measures including cultivation, along with other knock-down and residual herbicides, to take the pressure off glyphosate in their farming system. “Feathertop Rhodes grass is not a problem in conventional systems but the more area farmed the more difficult it is to keep clean,” he says. “It also seems to prefer scrub soils that are a bit lighter textured than the open downs country and alluvial soils we have on this property, giving us a slight advantage.” The fallow starts with spraying out sorghum in June with glyphosate to kill the crop, make harvest easier and kill the weeds. During summer, Brendan applies glyphosate, 2,4D-amine and small amount of metsulfuron (Group B) as a tank mix to target weeds when they are small and actively growing after a rainfall event. The metsulfuron is targeting parthenium and can also provide an additive effect on glyphosate when applied in a tank mix. After each spray application Brendan looks for, and manages any survivors or areas where the sprayer has missed, to minimise the number of weeds that escape and set seed later in the season. In recent years he has moved to more robust rates to ensure efficient weed control and to avoid the need to go over a paddock a second time. With the variable rainfall experienced in Central Queensland, chickpeas are now the Swaffer’s most reliable crop, using moisture seeking planting techniques. “We can plant in April or early May on rain received in February by planting the chickpea seed up to 18 cm deep,” says Brendan. “Chickpea is the only crop that has a long coleoptile that allows emergence from such depth.” Planting chickpea on 50 cm rows using moisture seeking techniques has established chickpea as the Swaffer’s most reliable crop. Brendan has found that a post-plant pre-emergence application of Terbyne (Group C) controls weeds up to canopy closure and no other in-crop herbicide is needed until the crop is desiccated prior to harvest. “Emergence can take three weeks, but we can establish a crop on stored moisture and have it up and away before in-crop rain initiates a fresh flush of weed germination, giving the crop a distinct competitive advantage.” The timing of a moisture seeking planting needs to factor in the frost risk in the district to avoid having the chickpea crop flowering when there is a high chance of frost. In some years there is moisture higher in the profile, allowing both chickpea and wheat to be planted about 10 cm deep. Wheat is also planted a little later in the Clermont district than in other areas of CQ, to avoid frost. Most growers prefer to accept the small yield penalty for planting later rather than risking a crop failure. “Strzelecki wheat is a slow maturing spring wheat of semi dwarf habit that is popular in CQ due mainly to its longer coleoptile length that allows us to plant to a depth of 10 cm,” he says. “But this variety is about to be re-classified to Hard 2 instead of Prime Hard and so many growers will be looking for alternative wheat for the future,” he says. Strzelecki wheat has been a mainstay variety in the Clermont district because of its ability to emerge from a depth of 10 cm. A change in classification of this wheat will most likely drive growers to look for a replacement variety suited to the conditions. Higher levels of crop competition can be achieved in the winter crops compared to the summer crops, with chickpea and wheat both sown on 50 cm rows. Brendan plants chickpea in his cleanest paddocks and uses a post-plant pre-emergence application of Terbyne (Group C) to control weeds up to canopy closure. No other in-crop herbicide is applied except for desiccation for harvest management. Brendon avoids using Balance due to the long plant-back period and the need for a lot of rain to breakdown the residual. Sorghum crops are sown on single skip metre rows, with cotton planted in double skip configuration of 2 in and 2 out to optimise yield and quality. Brendan previously planted sorghum in solid 1 m single rows but has changed to planting a single skip – 2 in and 1 out – and increased intra-row plant density. The soil on the Swaffer’s property requires about 200 mm of steady soaking rain to fill the profile and initiate a summer crop planting. Last season there was no summer crop planted due to a lack of soil moisture however the outlook year is looking more promising for sorghum but they have not planted cotton this season. “We are concentrating on achieving even intra-row spacing using a double disc precision planter to increase weed competition within the row,” he says. “This also promotes even maturity and reduces tillering. The combined effect encourages a shorter flowering period and makes grub and midge control easier, along with reducing the risk of ergot infection.” Sorghum is planted in January and early February following an application of glyphosate, Dual Gold and 2,4D, provided there is no cotton planted nearby. Brendan also applies atrazine and fluroxypyr to provide in-crop weed control. Metolachlor applied in the fallow ahead of cotton provides some residual weed control but the main in-crop weed control strategy is RR Plantshield. Brendan puts far greater emphasis on timeliness of weed control than on specific rates and products. At harvest, Brendan uses perforated screens in the header to remove as much Mexican poppy, and turnip weed seed and soil as possible out of the chickpea grain sample. He also keeps about 100 t of both chickpea and wheat seed that has been graded hard to ensure the cleanest possible seed goes back in the ground the following season. Brendon does all his own spraying with a John Deere 4030R self-propelled sprayer and likes to keep their spray technology up to date. He considers the sprayer to be their main tractor now and changes the sprayer unit every 5 years or so to always have new gear that works well and minimal downtime. “Our groundwater is quite hard so we use ammonium sulfate, especially when spraying out sorghum with glyphosate,” says Brendan. “Although we now have more access to rainwater, storing water is very costly so we have been assessing the difference between rain water and groundwater this year in terms of cost and efficacy on weeds. We expect to invest more in rainwater storage in the future.” Being in full control of the spray program means Brendan can ensure his neighbours are always informed regarding cotton plantings and he only sprays when conditions are suitable. “When sensitive crops are nearby it is all about working in the right conditions and being careful about product selection,” he says. Other resources Mark Congreve explains the key features of FTR, considerations when developing a control strategy, fallow herbicide options and fallow application recommendations in a new series of Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) Know More videos.
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Planned approach to rotations helps manage weeds

Ross, Ingrid, David and Margot Uebergang have been growing cotton for 27 years at Miles on the Darling Downs. Speaking to their CottonInfo Regional Extension Officer, Ross Uebergang outlined how they are managing the threat of resistant weeds. They combat a series of weeds each year, in both their cotton and winter crops, including fleabane, feathertop Rhodes grass, barnyard grass, liverseed grass, bladder ketmia, black pigweed, caustic creeper, caltrop, volunteer cotton, milk thistle, fireweed, black oats and phalaris. Bellvine is an emerging problem on the farm, one Ross Uebergang suspects may become a larger problem down the track. Ross Uebergang, Jess Mickelborough and Tim Richards The Uebergangs are yet to do any resistance testing – something Ross hopes to implement this season – but suspect they may have resistant grass weeds. As a result, they have implemented a whole-of-farm approach to integrated weed management, involving multiple weed-control tactics. “If you keep relying on one tactic no matter what it is, a problem is going to arise,” said Ross. “We are trying to manage resistance and also the buildup of problem weed seeds. If we don’t, resistant or hard-to-kill weeds will bring the whole farming system unstuck.” “For us, grasses are the main problem. We have barnyard grass and feathertop Rhodes grass and we’re unsure if they’re resistant or just hard to kill,” he said. Ross doesn’t rely on glyphosate: his approach includes pre-plant residuals, pre-emergent knock downs, and ‘laybys’ (residual herbicides used to control weeds in- crop), plus non-herbicide tactics including cultivations and spot chipping. “Our current strategy is to apply a residual six-weeks prior to cotton planting and then to pre-irrigate to allow the volunteers and other hard-to-kill weeds to emerge. “We follow this with pre- and post-planting knockdowns, which include gramoxone (Group L). In crop, we apply two Group M (glyphosate) sprays and a Group A spray to target feathertop Rhodes grass and will also apply in-crop residual chemicals with shield spray in problem fields. “After picking, we mulch and rootcut and then do heavy tillage passes to remove ratoon cotton and compaction and then the system starts again. For fields going into fallow, a layby is applied immediately post winter harvest, keeping fields clean for first flush of spring grasses,” said Ross. “We review our practices every year. Pre-season and post-season we have a meeting with our consultant, Tim Richards of MCA, to review our strategy. “This is where we work out our rotations and fields, highlight problem areas and develop our residual program. We have a whole farm approach, but treat fields separately due to different weed spectrum and soil types. “This is our third season of implementing this weed control program and it has really streamlined the whole operation of growing the crop, resulting in greater timeliness of operations which equates to better yields,” he said. Tim Richards of MCA says a successful integrated weed management system means taking a long-term approach. “If a grower is looking further ahead than just this season and is willing to commit to a rotation, then it is easy to implement an integrated weed management system like this one. The spin-off benefit of such a system is superior operational timeliness, as we have – and are adhering to – a plan,” Tim said. Growers Ross and Ingrid Uebergang, David and Margot Uebergang, Uebergang Agriculture Cropping area Total hectares: 1100 ha. Cotton: 400 ha irrigated Soil type Clay loam, brigalow belah, deep cracking self-mulching clays Rotations Three-year rotation: cotton (summer); covercrop back into cotton (winter, then summer); barley or wheat (winter); fallow (summer and winter); and cotton (summer) Source: CottonInfo Weed Control case studies Further information: CottonInfo weed management page
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Are you going spraying or killing weeds?

Spray drift is of great concern for sensitive crops and environments, along with the fact that if the spray doesn’t hit the intended target, you do your dough and your weeds live. Bill Gordon, spray application consultant with Nufarm Australia says the focus of spraying herbicide needs to be on doing the job right so the weeds receive the correct dose and die, and this includes reducing the air borne fraction to a bare minimum. Bill Gordon, Nufarm spray application consultant says most growers are implementing best spray practice when it comes to boom height and nozzle selection but the temptation to spray at higher speeds and into the night can over-ride common sense at times. “In many cases this means not spraying at night if the wind speed is too low,” he says. “Many product labels prohibit night spraying due mostly to the risk of spray drift. Our studies have shown that with a coarse spray quality drift may travel up to 300 to 400 metres during the day after any inversion has broken, but spraying at night can leave up to five times as much chemical in the air using the same products, nozzles and ground speed. This can result in spray drifting 10 to 20 kilometres or more at night, and this is unacceptable for other farmers, the community and the environment.” Mr Gordon says most growers are implementing best spray practice when it comes to boom height and nozzle selection but the temptation to spray at higher speeds and into the night can over-ride common sense at times. “The flip side of this is that it is becoming more evident that using Delta-T as the main determinant of safe day-time spraying conditions may not be the best approach,” he says. “What really matters most is the wind speed and whether the weeds are stressed or not.” “If the weeds are not stressed on a hot day, due to ample soil moisture, then spraying at a higher Delta-T may still be effective and safe, with course droplets surviving quite well and not becoming air-borne.” This can essentially increase the number of daytime hours available to growers to get the job done without spraying at night or early in the morning when the risk of spray drift is the highest. “Getting onto paddocks as soon as possible after rain and using up the daytime hours to target priority paddocks will maximise weed control and minimise spray drift risk,” says Mr Gordon. “Spraying can continue into the evening in summer if the soil remains warm and the wind speed stays above 12 km/hr. If the wind drops off, then spraying should cease, usually by about 10 pm through to a few hours after sunrise.” The bottom line is that it is very difficult to determine a safe night-time spraying conditions. When environmental conditions are borderline in terms of wind turbulence, the safe spray window can be extended slightly through the use of coarser sprayer quality where the proportion of droplets less than 150 microns is 10 per cent or less, keeping drift to a minimum. The trade-off, however, is reduced efficacy when using very coarse droplet size, particularly when the target is small, vertical or hard to wet. “When buying new nozzles, check them against the new standard, which shows spray quality with adjuvants rather than water only,” says Mr Gordon. “The GRDC has recently updated and published the 2017 Nozzle Selection Chart for growers to use as a reference. Using the correct nozzle and adjuvant combination can have a positive impact in reducing spray drift and maintaining efficacy.” [A new factsheet provides advice to help growers meet the new 2,4-D application requirements] “Reducing ground speed by just 5 km/hr can also make a big difference to spray coverage and efficacy of weed control, particularly if there is a high stubble load present,” he says. “Water sensitive paper, in combination with apps such as ‘SnapCard’, is a good way to test the coverage, penetration and spray pattern achieved under different conditions, such as different ground speeds.” Mr Gordon’s rule of thumb for effective weed control when applying fully translocated products (e.g. glyphosate and Group I) is a minimum of 6–8 per cent coverage, while coverage of 10–12 per cent or more is required for contact herbicides. “Pre-emergent herbicides are the most difficult to judge due to the number of variables involved in their effective application, but as a rule of thumb I generally look for coverage of at least 15–20 per cent,” he says. Getting onto paddocks as soon as possible after rain and using up the daytime hours to target priority paddocks will maximise weed control and minimise spray drift risk. Spraying can continue into the evening in summer if the soil remains warm and the wind speed stays above 12 km/hr. If the wind drops off, then spraying should cease, usually by about 10 pm through to a few hours after sunrise. If you are going out killing weeds, you need to get everything right. Bill Gordon’s 10 Tips for Reducing Spray Drift Choose all products in the tank mix carefully. Understand the product mode of action and coverage requirements. Select (and check) the coarsest spray quality that will provide effective control. Expect that surface temperature inversions will form as sunset approaches and will likely persist overnight and even beyond sunrise on many occasions. DO NOT SPRAY. Use weather forecasts to inform your spray decisions. Only start spraying when the sun is about 20 degrees above the horizon and when the wind speed has been above 4–5 km/hr for more than 20–30 minutes, and clearly blowing away from any adjacent sensitive crops or areas. Set the boom height to achieve a double overlap of the spray patterns. Avoid higher spraying speeds. Leave buffers unsprayed if necessary and come back. Continue to monitor conditions, particularly wind speed, at the site during the spray operation. https://www.weedsmart.org.au/webinars/spray-wisely-well-maximise-efficacy-bill-gordon/ Watch what happens in this demonstration of fine particle movement under surface temperature inversion conditions. Other resources: ‘Spray wisely and well’ Webinar – Bill Gordon Ask an expert May 2017 – Bill Gordon Maintaining efficacy with larger droplets – New 2,4-D application requirements SnapCard App GRDC Nozzle Selection Guide 2017 Cotton Field Awareness Map (CottonMap) Nufarm Spray Wise Decisions Spray Application GrowNotes
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Giving summer legumes the competitive edge

Fifty years ago, many farmers and researchers expected herbicides to be the panacea for weed control. The reality has been that no weed species has been eradicated through the use of herbicides alone, and in fact, many weeds have increased in population in the presence of herbicide application in farming systems. This is what motivates researcher Dr Bhagirath Chauhan, Principal Research Fellow with the Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation (QAAFI) to study how crops can do their own weed control through the application of cultural practices. Dr Bhagirath Chauhan says narrower row spacing in summer legumes such as mungbean and soybean will take the pressure off in-crop herbicide applications, provided the crop is sown into clean paddocks and weeds are controlled for at least three weeks after planting. He says that his agronomic trials in summer legume (mungbean and soybean) crops are consistently showing that early canopy closure results in lower weed biomass and higher crop yield. “We have demonstrated that narrower row spacing in summer legumes such as mungbean and soybean will take the pressure off in-crop herbicide applications, provided the crop is sown into clean paddocks and weeds are controlled for at least three weeks after planting,” he says. “Increased yield is a significant benefit and will support growers’ decisions to set up their planting gear to suit farming on narrower row spacings.” In the 2015 and 2016 mungbean seasons, 30 kg/ha of Jade-AU was grown at 25, 50, and 75 cm row spacing and Rhodes grass was sown to provide a known weed density in all plots. There were four levels of weed infestation applied 1. Weeds sown at planting, 2. Weeds sown 3 weeks after planting, 3. Weeds sown 6 weeks after planting, 4. Weed-free throughout the growing season. Rhodes grass was spread at 300 seeds per m2 to create even competition across the site, which is generally not possible if researchers rely on the natural weed seed bank of the experimental site providing the competition. Agronomic trials in summer legume (mungbean and soybean) crops are consistently showing that early canopy closure results in lower weed biomass and higher crop yield. “In plots where the mungbean crop and the weed emerged together, it didn’t matter which row spacing was used – the weed biomass was high and the grain yield was low, less than 360 kg/ha,” says Dr Chauhan. “If the crop is kept weed-free for the first 3 weeks after planting then the narrower row spacings of 25 and 50 cm saw a reduction in weed biomass. We know from other studies that weed biomass correlates well with weed seed production, so reducing biomass can be expected to also reduce seed production in the weed.” In both seasons, the combination of keeping the crop weed-free for at least the first 3 weeks and planting on the narrower rows (25 or 50 cm rather than 75 cm) generated a yield increase of 159–197 per cent in 2015 and 198–223 per cent in 2016. Even in a completely weed-free growing environment the two narrower spacings generated higher yield than the 75 cm rows. “This trial demonstrates the value of reducing row spacing to 50 cm in mungbeans and keeping crops weed-free for the first six weeks after planting,” says Dr Chauhan. “After this point the crop has the competitive edge and any later germinating weeds struggle to get established.” Dr Chauhan has also conducted trials to determine weed densities that will cause a 50 per cent reduction in mungbean yield. These weed densities can provide a guide to growers and agronomists about the level of infestation that will affect yield and allow them to determine an economic response, keeping in mind that any weeds that set seed are building up in the weed seed bank for following seasons. A 50 per cent yield reduction in mungbean can be expected in the face of 31 bladder ketmia plants/m2, 22 feathertop Rhodes grass plants/m2, 33 windmill grass plants/m2, 21 liverseed grass plants/m2 or 23 button grass plants/m2. In a similar row spacing trial in soybeans, Dr Chauhan saw similar results to those of the mungbean trial. He also confirmed that row spacing, not plant population, is the key driver to reducing weed growth. “In soybeans, weed biomass was reduced by 89 per cent under narrow rows (25 cm) and 75 per cent under wider rows (75 cm) when the crop was kept weed-free for the first three weeks after planting,” says Dr Chauhan. “If weeds were controlled for the first six weeks then weed biomass was reduced by 98 per cent under narrow rows and 88 per cent under wider rows.” In weed-free plots there was a 20 per cent yield benefit in changing from 75 cm row spacing to 25 cm. This yield difference was 65 per cent in plots where weeds were introduced 6 weeks after planting and a huge 121 per cent higher when the weed infestation occurred three weeks after planting. Mungbean crop density has a direct effect on the morphology of weeds such as barnyard grass where the weed is quite prostrate when there is no crop competition, and has a more upright habit when there is more crop competition. This may have implications for weed control strategies such as harvest weed seed control.
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SwarmFarm: Targeting small weeds all year

Just five years ago Central Queensland grain farmer Andrew Bate was in a tractor, spraying a wheat crop, and thinking about ways to farm better and more efficiently. His idea to create a ‘swarm’ of small, lightweight machines that could work autonomously and cooperatively, is now a commercial reality. SwarmFarm operations manager and leader of field development, Will McCarthy, says the robots are the ultimate weed scouts, tracking down escapes and eliminating them before they have a chance to set seed. Along with his wife Jocie, Andrew is founding director of SwarmFarm Robotics. The headquarters of their agricultural technology company is their farm ‘Bendee’ at Gindie, south of Emerald, where their team of seven software and mechatronics engineers and technicians is building and testing world-first robotic technology specifically for agricultural applications. “There are currently seven SwarmFarm robots working on grain farms, turf farms and in an environmentally-sensitive area on a mine site,” says Andrew. “Our commercial release of 50 robots setup for spraying weeds using the WeedIT optical sprayer technology is now underway.” Weed control provides an excellent opportunity for robotics to shine. A time-consuming but ‘simple’ task that robots can do very effectively at a slower pace, ensuring every weed in the paddock is accurately and effectively controlled while still at a small size. Weighing just 2 t fully loaded, each robot is only 10 per cent of the weight of a conventional sprayer and they fit in perfectly with zero till and controlled traffic farming systems. The cost benefit of robots applying herbicide lies in the frequency of treatment, accuracy and ability to safely operate any time of the day or night. While a grower may hesitate to go spraying, concerned that there might be another rain event and subsequent germination, the robots can ‘go now and go later’, always targeting small weeds at their most susceptible growth stage. Weighing just 2 t fully loaded, each robot is only 10 per cent of the weight of a conventional sprayer and they fit in perfectly with zero till and controlled traffic farming systems. The SwarmFarm robots optimise the use of existing optical sprayer technology to identify and target small weeds in a green-on-brown situation (i.e. in fallow) by enabling more frequent applications that are slower and more accurate. The ability to go over the same paddock every few weeks is the standout difference that robotics can bring to the management of herbicide resistance. SwarmFarm operations manager and leader of field development, Will McCarthy, says the prescription spraying used on ‘Bendee’ involves the robots passing over the fallow paddocks once every two weeks. “This way, no weed will get bigger than the 50 cent piece size that is optimal for effective control,” he says. “We can apply a wider range of herbicide modes of action, more robust rates for chemicals registered for this use pattern and potentially reintroduce products and brews that may have had reduced efficacy as broadacre sprays in the past.” “The robots are the ultimate weed scouts, tracking down escapes and eliminating them before they have a chance to set seed. Constantly targeting small weeds and preventing seed set is the only way to keep weed numbers low and avoid herbicide resistance.” The SwarmFarm robots enable the optical sprayer technology to really come into its own because the robots can operate slower, the cameras and sprayers can be closer together and the robots can go over the paddock repeatedly so there is no concern about getting the timing right. Every weed can be treated at an early growth stage for the herbicide to have maximum effect, tackling herbicide resistance at the source by applying constant downward pressure on the weed seed bank. The SwarmFarm concept is ideal for new technology developments, as it allows easy integration of third party products as they are being developed, such as green-on-green technology. Will says the robots would then be able to distinguish between a weed and a crop plant and even between weed species. This will allow the removal of volunteer crop plants and even target broadleaf weeds like sowthistle in a broadleaf crop such as chickpea. Although the current focus is on herbicide application, there is great potential to use the same platform to implement non-herbicide tactics such as targeted tillage or robotic chipping, steam or any other non-herbicide tactic found to be effective. “Using the robot concept, microwave technology becomes a realistic option because the robots can stop at every weed and apply the necessary microwave blast to kill each weed, something that is simply not feasible for a tractor operator,” says Will. WeedIT cameras capture data from a 1 m wide band on the ground using NIR and IR light to detect green weeds in a ‘brown’ paddock. The SwarmFarm concept allows easy integration of third party products as they are being developed, such as green-on-green technology or non-herbicide tactics such as targeted tillage or robotic chipping, steam or any other tactic found to be effective. “Aside from weed management, the robots will enable direct management of a crop’s plant population to maximise yield potential for the available soil moisture,” he says. “There is no reason why the SwarmFarm platform can’t be utilised for planting and applying fertiliser precisely and economically, controlling insect pests and even harvesting the crop. The system is in place to support any application really and all that is needed is the planter, cultivator or harvester to be engineered and bolted on.” Andrew reckons that a 10 000 ha property like ‘Bendee’ would only need two SwarmFarm robots to take care of all their weed control operations. SwarmFarm robot features Working through the features of the SwarmFarm robots highlights their simple and robust construction and numerous safety features. Will says the team has worked hard to make diagnosis as simple as possible and the modular components have minimal opportunity for failure. “If there is a problem, the replacement parts can be easily fitted on-farm without specialist technicians and the maintenance is straightforward and well within the capability of any farmer,” he says. Multiple safety features built into the robots, which make them safer than a person operating a spray rig or tractor, include: obstacle detection sensors (can determine if the terrain ahead is suitable to traverse and also stopping if there is something in its path e.g. a vehicle or person), paddock definition (it maps the paddock to show boundaries, fencelines, trees, troughs, dams etc. then uses software to generate A–B lines. The robot then drives itself around these fixed obstacles), remote control using an iPad (allows the operator to stop and restart the robot when within the local farm network), a bumper sensor to turn off the machine as a back-up to the obstacle detection sensors (slow operating speed means any damage would be minimal if this was activated), a geo-fence that turns off the machine if it crosses the line. Each robot has an 8 m boom fitted with eight WeedIT optical cameras, 40 nozzles and a 600 L spray tank. Depending on weed density across the paddock this could last all day or an hour. The robot monitors the volume of spray in the tank and makes a decision whether it can reach the end of a run or not before running out of spray. It then returns to a docking station for refilling. At the moment, a person is required to refill the spray tank but plans are in place to fully automate the refilling operation within the next 8–12 months. The 60 L diesel fuel tank on board gives the machine an operating time of 18 hours between refueling. WeedIT cameras capture data from a 1 m wide band on the ground using NIR and IR light to detect green weeds in a ‘brown’ paddock. There are five individual sprayer solenoids per camera span, giving one spray nozzle every 20 cm. The cameras are set to turn on three nozzles over a weed to ensure good coverage, which is particularly important if there is a breeze blowing. The genius of the SwarmFarm system lies in the ‘smarts’ of the SwarmHive base station computer. Located in the grower’s office the SwarmHive takes care of the robots’ activity and decision making and coordinates the workflow of all the robots operating in the paddock. “If one machine is going slower due to higher weed numbers then the SwarmHive will reallocate the other robots to cover the extra area so that the whole paddock operation is completed at about the same time and all the robots come back to the docking station together,” says Will. “It is updating in real time and making decisions about the weather conditions, mapping weed density, ensuring the robots are operating efficiently and sending alerts if any problems arise, such as a pump malfunction or an obstacle detected.” An on-site automatic weather station located at the docking station monitors key parameters such as Delta-T, wind speed and direction and ensures the robots only operate within the label directions. The SwarmHive automatically turns off the robots and then restarts them when the conditions are within the acceptable range. Integration with an on-site, automatic weather station also provides a reliable record of spray activities and the real-time environmental conditions during the spray operation, such as wind speed and direction. The grower also has ‘on-the-go’ access via an iPad app to monitor and control the robots if necessary, when within the local farm network. Other resources Andrew Bate SwarmFarm Robotics podcast